Thursday, July 21, 2016

Temporal cognition: Connecting subjective time to perception, attention, and memory. [feedly]



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Temporal cognition: Connecting subjective time to perception, attention, and memory.
// Psychological Bulletin - Vol 136, Iss 4

Time is a universal psychological dimension, but time perception has often been studied and discussed in relative isolation. Increasingly, researchers are searching for unifying principles and integrated models that link time perception to other domains. In this review, we survey the links between temporal cognition and other psychological processes. Specifically, we describe how subjective duration is affected by nontemporal stimulus properties (perception), the allocation of processing resources (attention), and past experience with the stimulus (memory). We show that many of these connections instantiate a "processing principle," according to which perceived time is positively related to perceptual vividity and the ease of extracting information from the stimulus. This empirical generalization generates testable predictions and provides a starting-point for integrated theoretical frameworks. By outlining some of the links between temporal cognition and other domains, and by providing a unifying principle for understanding these effects, we hope to encourage time-perception researchers to situate their work within broader theoretical frameworks, and that researchers from other fields will be inspired to apply their insights, techniques, and theorizing to improve our understanding of the representation and judgment of time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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Kevin McGrew, PhD
Educational Psychologist 
Director
Institute for Applied Psychometrics
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Video: The ultimate brain map


The ultimate brain map
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UHDfvfYCY0U

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Friday, July 08, 2016

Multitasking is exhausting your brain, say neuroscientists

Focus on single tasks and take what I call "reflection breaks" (laying down on couch doing nothing but letting my default brain network do mind wandering"

Multitasking is exhausting your brain, say neuroscientists

Does your morning routine consist of checking emails, browsing Facebook, downing coffee, heading to the train while Googling one last idea,…

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Friday, July 01, 2016

Sleepless Night, Restless Mind: Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Mind Wandering.



Sleepless Night, Restless Mind: Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Mind Wandering.

Sleep deprivation can result in degradation of sustained attention through increased distraction by task-irrelevant…

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Wednesday, June 29, 2016

The Clinical Neuropsychologist | Call for Papers--New stat and psychometric advances



The Clinical Neuropsychologist | Call for Papers

The primary objectives of this special issue are to: (1) highlight new statistical and psychometric advances that are relevant to the practice of…

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Monday, June 27, 2016

Giant Artwork Reflects The Gorgeous Complexity of The Human Brain



Giant Artwork Reflects The Gorgeous Complexity of The Human Brain

From The Huffington Post on Flipboard

The new work at The Franklin Institute may be the most complex and detailed artistic depiction of the brain ever. Your brain has…

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Sunday, June 26, 2016

Research byte: A cross-syndrome evaluation of a new attention rating scale: The Scale of Attention in intellectual Disability via BrowZine

A cross-syndrome evaluation of a new attention rating scale: The Scale of Attention in intellectual Disability
Freeman, Nerelie C.; Gray, Kylie M.; Taffe, John R.; Cornish, Kim M.
Research in Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 57 – 2016: 18 - 28

10.1016/j.ridd.2016.06.005

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Wednesday, June 22, 2016

Brain timing shares significant genetic component with intelligence

Interesting behavioral genetics study that demonstrates that millisecond temporal processing in the brain has a significant genetic component that is also shared with general intelligence. This (and other) research continues to indicate the importance of investigating "brain timing" as an important component of cognitive functioning. Also, this research indicates that this association is not all genetic--which suggests that interventions that might produce changes in basic neural timing mechanisms may increase cognitive efficiency/functioning.

Click on images

 

 

 

Tuesday, June 21, 2016

The Hidden World Of The Brain: The Role Of The Basal Ganglia Beyond Movement



The Hidden World Of The Brain: The Role Of The Basal Ganglia Beyond Movement

From The Huffington Post on Flipboard

What comes to mind when you think of the brain? You probably imagine a crinkly, walnut-like structure, with a multitude of…

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First Click: The benefits of brain-training games? They're all in your head



First Click: The benefits of brain-training games? They're all in your head

From The Verge on Flipboard

Visit the website of brain-training software NeuroNation and you're greeted with a reassuring message. "Your potential is…

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Research byte: Formal Models of the Network Co-occurrence Underlying Mental Operations



Formal Models of the Network Co-occurrence Underlying Mental Operations

1. Biswal BB, Mennes M, Zuo XN, Gohel S, Kelly C, Smith SM, et al. Toward discovery science of human brain function. Proceedings…

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Sunday, June 19, 2016

Research byte: Examining the role of emotional valence of mind wandering: All mind wandering is not equal



Examining the role of emotional valence of mind wandering: All mind wandering is not equal

Highlights • We examined the impact of emotional valence of task unrelated thoughts (TUTs). • Reanalysis of…

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Friday, June 17, 2016

Research byte: Shadowing the wandering mind: how understanding the mind-wandering state can inform our appreciation of conscious experience via BrowZine

More on the huge and growing literature on mind wandering and the default brain network. Additional posts can be found at the Brain Clock blog

http://www.brainclock.net/search/label/mind%20wandering

Shadowing the wandering mind: how understanding the mind-wandering state can inform our appreciation of conscious experience
Konishi, Mahiko; Smallwood, Jonathan
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, Vol. 7 Issue 4 – 2016: 233 - 246

10.1002/wcs.1392

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Diffusion Tensor Imaging Identifies New Biomarker of One-Yea...

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Tuesday, June 14, 2016

Research byte: More on the critical importance of attentional control (AC)--this time in sports performance

The ever growing body of research re the importance of the construct of attentional control (AC) in all kinds of human performance is, IMHO, one of the most important findings in cognitive psychology during the past few years.  In my opinion, improving AC may be one of the key's to effective brain training/fitness programs.  Also, differences in the AC of individuals has important implications for understanding differences in cognitive functioning.
Available online 10 June 2016
Target Article

Working Memory, Attentional Control, and Expertise in Sports: A Review of Current Literature and Directions for Future Research

Choose an option to locate/access this article:

The aim of the present review was to investigate the theoretical framework of working memory as it relates to the control of attention in sport and thereby apply cognitive psychological theory to sports, but also use the sports domain to advance cognitive theory. We first introduce dual-process theories as an overarching framework for attention-related research in sports. Then a central mechanism is highlighted how working memory is involved in the control of attention in sports by reviewing research demonstrating that the activated contents in working memory control the focus of attention. The second part of the paper reviews literature showing that working memory capacity is an important individual difference variable that is predictive of controlling attention in a goal-directed manner and avoiding distraction and interference in sports. Finally, we address the question whether differences in working memory capacity contribute to sport expertise.

Keywords

  • Dual-process;
  • Working memory;
  • Attention;
  • Sport;
  • Individual differences

Research byte: Multi-domain training may improve attentional control (AC) in older adults



Multi-domain training enhances attentional control.
Psychology and Aging, Vol 31(4), Jun 2016, 390-408. http://dx.doi.org.ezp1.lib.umn.edu/10.1037/pag0000081

Abstract

Multi-domain training potentially increases the likelihood of overlap in processing components with transfer tasks and everyday life, and hence is a promising training approach for older adults. To empirically test this, 84 healthy older adults aged 64 to 75 years were randomly assigned to one of three single-domain training conditions (inhibition, visuomotor function, spatial navigation) or to the simultaneous training of all three cognitive functions (multi-domain training condition). All participants trained on an iPad at home for 50 training sessions. Before and after the training, and at a 6-month follow-up measurement, cognitive functioning and training transfer were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery including tests targeting the trained functions (near transfer) and transfer to executive functions (far transfer: attentional control, working memory, speed). Participants in all four training groups showed a linear increase in training performance over the 50 training sessions. Using a latent difference score model, the multi-domain training group, compared with the single-domain training groups, showed more improvement on the far transfer attentional control composite. Individuals with initially lower baseline performance showed higher training-related improvements, indicating that training compensated for lower initial cognitive performance. At the 6-month follow-up, performance on the cognitive test battery remained stable. This is one of the first studies to investigate systematically multi-domain training including comparable single-domain training conditions. Our findings suggest that multi-domain training enhances attentional control involved in handling several different tasks at the same time, an aspect in everyday life that is particularly challenging for older people. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Monday, June 13, 2016

TIME: A Multidisciplinary Collection



TIME: A Multidisciplinary Collection

Time is a complex and contested concept, and one that holds significance for every academic discipline. TIME: A Multidisciplinary Collection welcomes you to delve…

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Psychology's Credibility Crisis: the Bad, the Good and the Ugly



Psychology's Credibility Crisis: the Bad, the Good and the Ugly

Times are tough for young psychologists. This thought has been rattling around in my head lately because we just finished searching for…

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Thursday, June 09, 2016

Meta-Analytic Comparison of Brain Abnormalities in ADHD and OCD



Meta-Analytic Comparison of Brain Abnormalities in ADHD and OCD

Importance Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share impaired…

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Next phase in the brain health revolution: Objective, physiological, and widespread measures of brain function



Next phase in the brain health revolution: Objective, physiological, and widespread measures of brain function

— Credit: Marianne Meadahl, SFU "Simon Fraser University researchers hope that a brain…

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Wednesday, June 08, 2016

Research byte: Validation of the Mind Excessively Wandering Scale and the Relationship of Mind Wandering to Impairment in Adult ADHD



Validation of the Mind Excessively Wandering Scale and the Relationship of Mind Wandering to Impairment in Adult ADHD

• Florence D. Mowlem1 • Caroline Skirrow1 • Peter Reid1 • Stefanos Maltezos1 •…

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Saturday, June 04, 2016

PEBS Neuroethics Roundup (JHU) [feedly]



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PEBS Neuroethics Roundup (JHU)
// Neuroethics & Law Blog

Last Edition's Most Popular Article(s): There's No Such Thing as Free Will, The Atlantic In The Popular Press: My Brain Made Me Do It: Will Neuroscience Change the Way We Punish Criminals? The Conversation US Scientists Can Figure Out What...
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Friday, June 03, 2016

Research byte: People mind wander more during massed than spaced inductive learning.



People mind wander more during massed than spaced inductive learning.

• This article investigates the relation between mind wandering and the spacing effect in inductive learning. Participants studied…

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How Neuroscientists Explain the Mind-Clearing Magic of Running



How Neuroscientists Explain the Mind-Clearing Magic of Running

It is something of a cliché among runners, how the activity never fails to clear your head. Does some creative block have you feeling…

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Monday, May 30, 2016

Is Intelligence Hereditary?



Is Intelligence Hereditary?

Scientists have investigated this question for more than a century, and the answer is clear: the differences between people on intelligence tests are substantially the…

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Sunday, May 29, 2016

Research Byte: Motor cortex excitability in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A systematic review and meta-analysis via BrowZine

Motor cortex excitability in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A systematic review and meta-analysis
Dutra, T.G.; Baltar, A.; Monte-Silva, K.K.
Research in Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 56 – 2016: 1 - 9

10.1016/j.ridd.2016.01.022

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Saturday, May 28, 2016

Research Byte: The Human Brainnetome Atlas: A New Brain Atlas Based on Connectional Architecture.



The Human Brainnetome Atlas: A New Brain Atlas Based on Connectional Architecture.

2016 May 26. pii: bhw157. [Epub ahead of print] 1Brainnetome Center. • 2Brainnetome Center National Laboratory of…

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Wednesday, May 25, 2016

$1.2 Billion Human Brain Project That Blows Your Mind



$1.2 Billion Human Brain Project That Blows Your Mind

As a society living in a 21st century, we have just begun to realize how little do we know about our brain. We desperately need to understand how…

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Saturday, May 21, 2016

How the brain consolidates memory during deep sleep


Dr. Jon Lieff is always producing well documented and insightful information at his blog

How the brain consolidates memory during deep sleep

Research strongly suggests that sleep, which constitutes about a third of our lives, is crucial for learning and forming long-term memories. But…

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Monday, May 16, 2016

New Glossary of Brain Science Terms



New Glossary of Brain Science Terms

Which part of the brain is involved in consciousness and emotion…and what exactly is the limbic system anyway? Our latest publication—A Glossary of Key Brain…

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