Wednesday, June 22, 2016

Brain timing shares significant genetic component with intelligence

Interesting behavioral genetics study that demonstrates that millisecond temporal processing in the brain has a significant genetic component that is also shared with general intelligence. This (and other) research continues to indicate the importance of investigating "brain timing" as an important component of cognitive functioning. Also, this research indicates that this association is not all genetic--which suggests that interventions that might produce changes in basic neural timing mechanisms may increase cognitive efficiency/functioning.

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Tuesday, June 21, 2016

The Hidden World Of The Brain: The Role Of The Basal Ganglia Beyond Movement



The Hidden World Of The Brain: The Role Of The Basal Ganglia Beyond Movement

From The Huffington Post on Flipboard

What comes to mind when you think of the brain? You probably imagine a crinkly, walnut-like structure, with a multitude of…

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First Click: The benefits of brain-training games? They're all in your head



First Click: The benefits of brain-training games? They're all in your head

From The Verge on Flipboard

Visit the website of brain-training software NeuroNation and you're greeted with a reassuring message. "Your potential is…

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Research byte: Formal Models of the Network Co-occurrence Underlying Mental Operations



Formal Models of the Network Co-occurrence Underlying Mental Operations

1. Biswal BB, Mennes M, Zuo XN, Gohel S, Kelly C, Smith SM, et al. Toward discovery science of human brain function. Proceedings…

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Sunday, June 19, 2016

Research byte: Examining the role of emotional valence of mind wandering: All mind wandering is not equal



Examining the role of emotional valence of mind wandering: All mind wandering is not equal

Highlights • We examined the impact of emotional valence of task unrelated thoughts (TUTs). • Reanalysis of…

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Friday, June 17, 2016

Research byte: Shadowing the wandering mind: how understanding the mind-wandering state can inform our appreciation of conscious experience via BrowZine

More on the huge and growing literature on mind wandering and the default brain network. Additional posts can be found at the Brain Clock blog

http://www.brainclock.net/search/label/mind%20wandering

Shadowing the wandering mind: how understanding the mind-wandering state can inform our appreciation of conscious experience
Konishi, Mahiko; Smallwood, Jonathan
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, Vol. 7 Issue 4 – 2016: 233 - 246

10.1002/wcs.1392

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Diffusion Tensor Imaging Identifies New Biomarker of One-Yea...

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Tuesday, June 14, 2016

Research byte: More on the critical importance of attentional control (AC)--this time in sports performance

The ever growing body of research re the importance of the construct of attentional control (AC) in all kinds of human performance is, IMHO, one of the most important findings in cognitive psychology during the past few years.  In my opinion, improving AC may be one of the key's to effective brain training/fitness programs.  Also, differences in the AC of individuals has important implications for understanding differences in cognitive functioning.
Available online 10 June 2016
Target Article

Working Memory, Attentional Control, and Expertise in Sports: A Review of Current Literature and Directions for Future Research

Choose an option to locate/access this article:

The aim of the present review was to investigate the theoretical framework of working memory as it relates to the control of attention in sport and thereby apply cognitive psychological theory to sports, but also use the sports domain to advance cognitive theory. We first introduce dual-process theories as an overarching framework for attention-related research in sports. Then a central mechanism is highlighted how working memory is involved in the control of attention in sports by reviewing research demonstrating that the activated contents in working memory control the focus of attention. The second part of the paper reviews literature showing that working memory capacity is an important individual difference variable that is predictive of controlling attention in a goal-directed manner and avoiding distraction and interference in sports. Finally, we address the question whether differences in working memory capacity contribute to sport expertise.

Keywords

  • Dual-process;
  • Working memory;
  • Attention;
  • Sport;
  • Individual differences

Research byte: Multi-domain training may improve attentional control (AC) in older adults



Multi-domain training enhances attentional control.
Psychology and Aging, Vol 31(4), Jun 2016, 390-408. http://dx.doi.org.ezp1.lib.umn.edu/10.1037/pag0000081

Abstract

Multi-domain training potentially increases the likelihood of overlap in processing components with transfer tasks and everyday life, and hence is a promising training approach for older adults. To empirically test this, 84 healthy older adults aged 64 to 75 years were randomly assigned to one of three single-domain training conditions (inhibition, visuomotor function, spatial navigation) or to the simultaneous training of all three cognitive functions (multi-domain training condition). All participants trained on an iPad at home for 50 training sessions. Before and after the training, and at a 6-month follow-up measurement, cognitive functioning and training transfer were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery including tests targeting the trained functions (near transfer) and transfer to executive functions (far transfer: attentional control, working memory, speed). Participants in all four training groups showed a linear increase in training performance over the 50 training sessions. Using a latent difference score model, the multi-domain training group, compared with the single-domain training groups, showed more improvement on the far transfer attentional control composite. Individuals with initially lower baseline performance showed higher training-related improvements, indicating that training compensated for lower initial cognitive performance. At the 6-month follow-up, performance on the cognitive test battery remained stable. This is one of the first studies to investigate systematically multi-domain training including comparable single-domain training conditions. Our findings suggest that multi-domain training enhances attentional control involved in handling several different tasks at the same time, an aspect in everyday life that is particularly challenging for older people. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Monday, June 13, 2016

TIME: A Multidisciplinary Collection



TIME: A Multidisciplinary Collection

Time is a complex and contested concept, and one that holds significance for every academic discipline. TIME: A Multidisciplinary Collection welcomes you to delve…

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Psychology's Credibility Crisis: the Bad, the Good and the Ugly



Psychology's Credibility Crisis: the Bad, the Good and the Ugly

Times are tough for young psychologists. This thought has been rattling around in my head lately because we just finished searching for…

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Thursday, June 09, 2016

Meta-Analytic Comparison of Brain Abnormalities in ADHD and OCD



Meta-Analytic Comparison of Brain Abnormalities in ADHD and OCD

Importance Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share impaired…

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Next phase in the brain health revolution: Objective, physiological, and widespread measures of brain function



Next phase in the brain health revolution: Objective, physiological, and widespread measures of brain function

— Credit: Marianne Meadahl, SFU "Simon Fraser University researchers hope that a brain…

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Wednesday, June 08, 2016

Research byte: Validation of the Mind Excessively Wandering Scale and the Relationship of Mind Wandering to Impairment in Adult ADHD



Validation of the Mind Excessively Wandering Scale and the Relationship of Mind Wandering to Impairment in Adult ADHD

• Florence D. Mowlem1 • Caroline Skirrow1 • Peter Reid1 • Stefanos Maltezos1 •…

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Saturday, June 04, 2016

PEBS Neuroethics Roundup (JHU) [feedly]



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PEBS Neuroethics Roundup (JHU)
// Neuroethics & Law Blog

Last Edition's Most Popular Article(s): There's No Such Thing as Free Will, The Atlantic In The Popular Press: My Brain Made Me Do It: Will Neuroscience Change the Way We Punish Criminals? The Conversation US Scientists Can Figure Out What...
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Friday, June 03, 2016

Research byte: People mind wander more during massed than spaced inductive learning.



People mind wander more during massed than spaced inductive learning.

• This article investigates the relation between mind wandering and the spacing effect in inductive learning. Participants studied…

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How Neuroscientists Explain the Mind-Clearing Magic of Running



How Neuroscientists Explain the Mind-Clearing Magic of Running

It is something of a cliché among runners, how the activity never fails to clear your head. Does some creative block have you feeling…

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Monday, May 30, 2016

Is Intelligence Hereditary?



Is Intelligence Hereditary?

Scientists have investigated this question for more than a century, and the answer is clear: the differences between people on intelligence tests are substantially the…

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Sunday, May 29, 2016

Research Byte: Motor cortex excitability in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A systematic review and meta-analysis via BrowZine

Motor cortex excitability in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A systematic review and meta-analysis
Dutra, T.G.; Baltar, A.; Monte-Silva, K.K.
Research in Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 56 – 2016: 1 - 9

10.1016/j.ridd.2016.01.022

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Saturday, May 28, 2016

Research Byte: The Human Brainnetome Atlas: A New Brain Atlas Based on Connectional Architecture.



The Human Brainnetome Atlas: A New Brain Atlas Based on Connectional Architecture.

2016 May 26. pii: bhw157. [Epub ahead of print] 1Brainnetome Center. • 2Brainnetome Center National Laboratory of…

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Wednesday, May 25, 2016

$1.2 Billion Human Brain Project That Blows Your Mind



$1.2 Billion Human Brain Project That Blows Your Mind

As a society living in a 21st century, we have just begun to realize how little do we know about our brain. We desperately need to understand how…

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Saturday, May 21, 2016

How the brain consolidates memory during deep sleep


Dr. Jon Lieff is always producing well documented and insightful information at his blog

How the brain consolidates memory during deep sleep

Research strongly suggests that sleep, which constitutes about a third of our lives, is crucial for learning and forming long-term memories. But…

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Monday, May 16, 2016

New Glossary of Brain Science Terms



New Glossary of Brain Science Terms

Which part of the brain is involved in consciousness and emotion…and what exactly is the limbic system anyway? Our latest publication—A Glossary of Key Brain…

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Wednesday, May 11, 2016

Research Byte: Improving time processing ability in children with disabilities

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An interesting study demonstrating that it may be possible to improve the time processing abilities of children with various disabilities. Given that time processing abilities have been implicated in certain key cognitive functions (working memory, attentional control, executive functions) this study is intriguing. I am particularly interested in learning more about the time processing ability measures and the potential to use them in future intelligence test batteries...as well as where such temporal abilities fit in the CHC model of cognitive abilities.

 

TIME: A Multidisciplinary Collection



TIME: A Multidisciplinary Collection

Time is a complex and contested concept, and one that holds significance for every academic discipline. TIME: A Multidisciplinary Collection welcomes you to delve…

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Tuesday, May 10, 2016

Large multi-center study to test videogame-like digital therapy as (potentially) FDA-cleared ADHD treatment [feedly]



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Large multi-center study to test videogame-like digital therapy as (potentially) FDA-cleared ADHD treatment
// SharpBrains

evo_akiliAkili Labs recruits for ADHD trial with ambitions of FDA clearance for digital medicine (MedCity News)

"Akili Labs has kicked off open enrollment for a clinical trial of its Project EVO video game platform in a quest to secure for 510(k) clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for its lead indication — attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

The trial is recruiting at least 300 participants aged 8-12 years old who have been diagnosed with ADHD. It will evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Project EVO platform, according to a company statement. The ultimate goal is to provide a drug alternative for children with ADHD and Akili Labs CEO Eddie Martucci views digital therapeutics as the way to do that…If the trial meets its endpoints, the company plans to submit Project EVO for FDA approval.

In a phone interview in February Martucci said, "We want this to stand alongside Adderall and other drugs as a doctor-prescribed treatment."

Study: Software Treatment for Actively Reducing Severity of ADHD (STARS-ADHD) (ClinicalTrials.gov)

  • Brief summary: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of videogame-like digital therapies on attentional functioning and symptoms in children diagnosed with ADHD.
  • Description: The study will be a randomized, parallel group, controlled trial of two videogame-like (iPad-based) digital therapies. The study will consist of 3 primary phases: Screening, Washout/Baseline, and Treatment. During the Screening Phase (Day -28 to Day -7), participants will undergo screening to evaluate eligibility for the study. Screening may take place up to 28 days before the Baseline Visit (Day 0). For those children currently on medication for ADHD the Washout period will begin 7 days prior to Baseline where treatment will be discontinued. On Day 0, the Baseline visit will occur wherein additional eligibility criteria will be established. The Treatment Phase (Day 1 to Day 27) will involve using the digital therapy at home for each participant followed by an In-Clinic assessment on Day 28 to assess key outcomes. Compliance with treatment/use requirements will be monitored remotely during this phase.

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Monday, May 09, 2016

Human 2.0: Tech Upgrades for the Nervous System [Cartoon]



Human 2.0: Tech Upgrades for the Nervous System [Cartoon]

This article was originally published with the title "Human 2.0" ABOUT THE AUTHOR(S) Dwayne Godwin Dwayne Godwin is a neuroscientist at the…

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Friday, May 06, 2016

Thursday, May 05, 2016

Progress and Problems in Brain Mapping



Progress and Problems in Brain Mapping

The holy grail of many neuroscients is to map neuronal connections and from this explain how the brain (and mind) works. There are approximately 80 billion…

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Wednesday, May 04, 2016

Research Byte: Building a Science of Individual Differences from fMRI.



Building a Science of Individual Differences from fMRI.

2016 Apr 29. pii: S1364-6613(16)30007-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2016.03.014. [Epub ahead of print] 1Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences,…

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